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I have had this issue twice already:

In very cold weather (today, it was 0 Fahrenheit, or -18 Celsius), the oil is so thick that it is difficult to pull in the clutch lever. If the clutch is pulled in to the handlebar when I turn on the ignition and the fuel pump starts to prime, the fuel pump stops priming. It starts priming again if I let go of the clutch a little.

Twice, the battery has been dead and I've heard only clicking. After jump starting it, the battery was fine until the onset of really cold weather again. I had to jump start the bike again today.

Why the interruption in the fuel pump priming? Is there an issue with my clutch switch? Why is my battery dying literally overnight, but is fine as long as the temperature is not quite that low? Is it because the oil is so thick?
 

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Why the interruption in the fuel pump priming? Is there an issue with my clutch switch? Why is my battery dying literally overnight, but is fine as long as the temperature is not quite that low? Is it because the oil is so thick?
That clutch switch is not the finest quality item. Try removing it from the lever perch and exercising its little spring-loaded plunger to see if it's stiff. Instructions on how to test and or remove the switch here:

http://www.triumphrat.net/twins-technical-talk/159793-bonneville-clutch-safety-switch.html

This is what it looks like when removed, notice the plunger I'm talking about:



In very cold weather and thick oil (especially if you're using a higher viscosity than recommended), the starter demands a lot more current than normal. If there's any weakness in the connections to the battery or solenoid or if the battery itself is marginal it'll show up as trouble starting.
 

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Discussion Starter #3
Using the recommended Castrol 10W-50. Was gonna change it to Amsoil 10W-40 at the beginning of January, before the real cold set in, but got lazy...
 

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In neutral with the lever out, the clutch is still engaged with the input shaft of the gearbox. Easier on the battery to disengage the clutch and thus the gearbox shaft. That's my take on it anyway for the carb version or for any bike.
 

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why the need to pull clutch lever to start? are efi bikes different than carb? as long as mine is in neutral, starter will work.
From around 2009 all the Bonnies need to have the clutch lever pulled in to enable starter. There's an interlock switch as described on link post 2.
 
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